Lidia Kowalska received the MSc degree in Warsaw University of Technology and in Warsaw University of Life Science, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture. Her master thesis was concerned influence of medium on tissue culture response of rye recombinant inbred lines with high morphogenetic potential. In 2014, she joined the Department of Plant Pathology in Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. She started a project within the doctoral thesis. Her current research interests include anthers and embryos in vitro culture and resistance breeding of wheat and triticale winter cultivars.
Triticale and wheat belong to the three most important cereal crops of the world and is grown under a wide variety of climatic and agricultural conditions. These plants are the most common species of food and feed crops and it is a fundamental nutrient source of human calories worldwide. Over the last few decades, researches still strive to agronomic traits improvement and among those quality and disease resistance in to biotic and abiotic stresses. Increasingly, conventional methods are supported by the biotechnological tools, e.g. somatic embryogenesis. The ability of triticale and wheat callus induction and plant regeneration are influenced by culture medium, initial plant organ and genotype. Mature embryos were started to use as an alternative to immature embryos. During study was observed remarkable advantages: mature embryos are easy to handle, there is no time limitation and they are available in bulk quantities.
This study was undertaken to compare of winter wheat and triticale genotypes efficiency of somatic embryogenesis using mature embryos culture. To select genotypes with a high regeneration capability, we used 17 wheat genotypes (6 cultivars, 11 diallel crosses) and 26 winter triticale lines (5 cultivars, 21 diallel crosses). Callus induction was observed for all studied genotypes. The rate of embryogenic callus formation was generally better for cultivars and F1 hybrids of winter triticale. Explants that developed embryogenic calli ranged from 25.00% for SE62 to 83.33% for SE69, while for winter wheat genotypes the embryogenic callus rate was lower (ranged 7.32% for SE98 87.23% for SE104). Plants were regenerated for 17 triticale lines and only for 10 wheat genotypes. The genotypes with a relatively high regeneration capability were: SE85 for wheat (61 plants were obtained) and SE67 (92 plants were received). It is to conclude, that wheat lines used in this study showed lower ability to regenerate plants from mature embryos in vitro culture. In the future work an effort will be undertaken to improve the somatic embryogenesis efficiency for this species.