Title : Subcritical water extraction of raphanus sativus red meat radix: A sustainability goal challenge
The identification of natural sources with neurotherapeutic potential has been important due to the increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are defined as a group of disorders that cause loss of function in the nervous system, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease, followed by Parkinson's disease. Because of their critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the discovery of compounds that can inhibit acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and tyrosinase activity has been the main approach to research. While ongoing studies focus on the discovery of bioactive metabolites, sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources are also critical for sustainability goals to reduce solvent, raw material and energy consumption and process duration. In this context, subcritical water extraction of a mass-produced plant source, red meat radish (Raphanus sativus Red Meat), was investigated for acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory potential and bioactive content. Quantitative analysis for total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content was performed spectrophotometrically. Previously optimized parameters for subcritical water extraction as 160 °C, 30 min, 10 solvent:solid ratio at 200 bar pressure were applied for radish extraction. The subcritical water extract was determined with 27.57 mg GAE/g and 3.76 mg QE/g extract for total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively, while anthocyanins were not found. IC50 values for acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were determined as 0.71 mg/ml, 2.13 mg/ml and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. On the basis of the crude extract, weaker activity was observed compared to reference drugs as galantamine and kojic acid. As discovered with a potential of contained bioactive groups and activity, subcritical water extracts of Raphanus sativus Red Meat radix can be considered as a valuable source for future isolation studies aiming to obtain fractions and compounds with enzyme inhibitory activity.
This study was supported by IKCU Scientific Research Projects Funds under section of priority areas project [Grant No: 2018-ÖNAP-ECZF-0009].