Title : Temperature-induced phytochemical adaptations of broccoli and consequences on the biological effects of its extracts
Plants have developed various mechanisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions, including rapid responses at the metabolic and biochemical levels. These responses help them survive and thrive in the face of sudden and intense variations in weather conditions caused by climate change. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is rich in vitamins, β-carotene, dietary fibers, polyphenols, and glucosinolates, phytochemicals known for their anticancerogenic activity. All these compounds contribute to the nutritional and health benefits of broccoli. Broccoli, like many plants, is adapted to specific climatic conditions, and variations in temperature and other environmental factors can affect its phytochemical profile. These phytochemical perturbations can have consequences not only on the plant's health and survival, but also on the potential biological effects and nutritional value of the plant and its products for human consumption. In the scope of our work, we investigated the influence of hot and cold water stress on the metabolism of young broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L.) Alef. var. cymosa Duch.) plants with the aim to unravel the intricate biochemical responses and adaptations that occur in these plants under adverse temperature conditions. Precisely, we (i) defined the susceptible and resistant parameters of this plant during low and high temperature water stress, (ii) determined the degree of metabolism change of broccoli due to these two types of stress, (iii) checked if there are trade-offs between the production of different phytochemicals, and (iv) determined the degree of change in the biological effects of broccoli extracts due to the types of stress. By examining changes in phytochemical profile and biological activity of control and stressed broccoli extracts, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of how these stressors impact the overall health, nutritional content, and potential resilience of broccoli crops. Our findings may have significant implications for optimizing cultivation practices, enhancing crop yields, and ensuring the nutritional quality of broccoli in the face of climate change and variable environmental conditions.