Title : Landscape genomics of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp durum) Algerian landraces to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation to abiotic stresses: A pilot study.
On-going climate change threatens agricultural production and is subjecting crops to stresses they have rarely experienced. Its impact in agricultural production varies depending on the climatic zone and on the type of cultivation and production system. The Mediterranean basin is recognized a climate change hotspot and climate projections warn that extreme drought events will become more frequent and severe, and winter precipitation will decrease, leading to drier springs. One of the crops that will be most affected by climate change is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp durum) and, consequently, the major Mediterranean producing countries are having to face the consequences that these changes can have on wheat production. Here, we integrated geographic information system and genotype data (coming from Durum DArTseq) of 188 durum wheat landraces from Algeria, to identify patterns of selection and SNP associated to environmental variation by using LFMM and RDA statistical approaches. The results, combined with a systematic literature review, revealed 419 SNPs with potentially key adaptive roles. Some of these SNPs have been located in genes implicated in lipid and protein metabolism (ex. Calcium-binding EF hand family protein), plant growth and development (ex. AP2-EREBP transcription factor) and stress response (ex. Acyl-CoA-binding domain protein). This approach allowed the identification of new SNPs related to abiotic stress resistance in durum wheat, but also possible new donor landraces for breeding programs.