Title : Sorghum as a forage alternative in semi-arid regions of Northern Mexico
I. Definition of the Ejido In the establishment of the starting point it is fundamental to define the ejido, according to Flores-Rodríguez (2008). “The ejido is a system of distribution and possession of the land that was institutionalized after the Mexican Revolution and that consists of granting land to a group of people for exploitation.” II. Definition of the distribution and possession of the land In the first instance, the distribution and possession of the land will be discussed to begin the explanation of the subject, and this is established by Trejo-Sánchez (2012); “Since evolution is a constant phenomenon that brings social changes as consequences; It should not be forgotten that agrarian property is immersed in these changes and its development is impacted by constant economic and legal transformations. Hence, it is necessary that this does not continue in the lag and can be promoted as a source of national wealth, with which all Mexicans benefit.” In Mexico there is the National Institute of Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and Consulta Mitofsky (2008), mentions that the Mexican population is 106.7 million inhabitants; where 50.8% are women and the remaining 49.2% are men; and 76% of the Mexican population is urban and the remaining 24% is rural at the present time of 2018. These population data are of the following order: 123.5 million Mexicans; of which 51.2 are women and 48.8 are men (INEGI, 2017), the trends of the 2005 population and housing census are maintained; that is to say; Mexico has more than 25 million Mexicans who have to do directly and indirectly with the country’s agricultural issue. This is why it is important to take into account the rural population as reported by Robles B.H. (2006); “In rural areas we have more than 5 million holders of land that have more than 185 million hectares; that is to say 5% “: At present the ejidal plot can be rented and even sold to other ejidatarios or residents of the same population nucleus; to be sold to a private individual, a step must be taken whereby the ejido accesses the full domain. Said process is carried out in a qualified general assembly where, in the presence of a public notary and a representative of the Agrarian Procurator’s Office, 75% of the ejidatarios attend and are in agreement with the change, two-thirds of the participants (Morett-Sánchez and Cossio-Ruiz, 2017). III. Reform to Article 27 of the Constitution Perez-Castañeda and Mackinlay (2015) question that the agrarian property in Mexico still has something of “social” and they express it in the following way: “from the moment in which the amendment of the constitutional article 27 ended the distribution of the land Upon entering into force on January 6, 1992, the agrarian reform process in Mexico was completed. Three quarters of the 20th century witnessed the gradual conversion of more than half of the national soil to the heat of the creation of ejidos and the restitution or confirmation of communities. The 1992 reform of agrarian legislation caused the metamorphosis of the Mexican ejido. From that moment on, legal features were lost and, therefore, it ceased to be one of the modalities of social ownership. The challenge of agricultural research in Mexico Rocha-Valdez. J.L*, Avila-Cisneros1 , R, González-Torres2 ; A., González-Avalos1 ; R. Ogaz A.1 1 Professors and Researchers of the Dept. of Basic and Integrative Sciences of the Academic Body UAAAN-CA-034 of the UAAAN-U.L. Road to Santa Fe and Periférico Raúl López Sánchez S / N, Col. Valle Verde, Torreón Coahuila México 2 Professor and Researcher of the Dept. of Basic Sciences of the UAAAN-U.L. and member of the Academic Body UAAAN-CA-040 Page 31 Plant Science Virtual 2020 Plant Science Virtual 2020 And it is in the characteristic of imprescriptible where the social of the ejido differs from the private; then, the reference authors minimally give the ejidos of Mexico the property of a private property in Moderate domain. which reflects in the faculty of the ejidatarios of: • Transmit the use and usufruct of the land Law Agaria (LA, article 45) • To contribute the land to the social capital of a company (LA, article 75) • To be able to offer the lands under guarantee (LA, article 46) • To convert lands to full dominion (LA, art 23, fraction IX) • To agree on the termination of the ejidal regime (LA, art.23, section XII) IV. The Tax System in the field Once the phases of the distribution and possession of the land have been established, the land exploitation phase begins where the Mexican government in the revenue law for 2014 sought, among other things, to increase tax collection as established by Núñez Sánchez A. (2014). “In Mexico there are 118 million inhabitants of which Chiapas has more than 5 million of those 118; 53 million constitute the economically active population; that is, they are people who have the physical and productive capacity, and who perform some economic activity. Of these 53 million inhabitants, 29.6 million are in the informal economy, that is, in Mexico there are more informal workers than formal workers. There are 26 million captive salaried Mexicans who every 15 days make a withholding of income tax (ISR) on their payroll. These captives contributed last year with 401 billion pesos for public finances”. However, although it is said that the fiscal incorporation regime (RIF) is a new issue of optional taxation (Núñez Sánchez A., Op.Cit) it must be given as a reading that it is obligatory for the agricultural and fishing sector; only with the fiscal discharge of the Ministry of Finance and public credit can the producers register to the government programs to support the production and / or purchase of productive assets such as tractors, harrows, plows, new breeding feet and transport equipment to move production. When establishing the Mexican system of fiscal obligations in the rural sector, it is considered important to establish how to comply with fiscal obligations, but also how to increase agricultural production using the extension and rural training that is offered as government support. V. The new agricultural extensionism Engel, (2000) states: “Extension is no longer enough as a vehicle to transmit the results of technological research to agricultural producers, extension should be positioned as an instrument to strengthen the self-learning and permanent innovation capacity of rural communities towards competitiveness and The sustainability”. According to the OECD (2010) in the early eighties in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA) there were about 25 000 government extension agents, in the nineties the Mexican government proposes implement a new extension system, which before the new millennium is transitioned from the process of classical extension to the private professional system, being in this scheme where the incorporation of knowledge capital generated by universities, research centers to carry out an efficient technology transfer. It is essential not to focus exclusively on extensionism, because it is not only the transfer of technology that increases production in the field, but also the process of training current or existing technology where farmers are rarely observed. or rural day laborer make use of it, so it is necessary to address the issue of rural training. Currently, the aim is to promote a new agricultural extension, because technical assistance and training services are disconnected from the results, and modern advisory services need new capacities to respond effectively to new ones. This new extension system is based on the hiring of PSP, which employs around ten thousand professionals per year. Page 32 Plant Science Virtual 2020 Plant Science Virtual 2020 In accordance with the rules of operation of the concurrency fund program and which is linked to the National Development Plan 2013-2018, which through the national program of crusade against hunger recognizes that “the field is a strategic sector , because of its potential to reduce poverty and affect regional development “, and that” the capitalization of the sector must be strengthened “, so that government resources destined to the agricultural, fishing and aquaculture sector should be used in a more efficient to address the problems in which the sector is immersed, because producers face constraints due to low levels of investment, productivity and lack of strategies for the aggregation of value in their economic units for primary activities. The government established the figures of a Professional Services Provider (PSP or, as the case may be, a group of Social Services Providers (PSS).) To evaluate the transfer of technology and training of the rural sector. Saw challenges of agricultural research in Mexico 1. Increase the level of technology transfer provided by PSPs, where production is significantly influenced by the acceptance of new technologies as well as the productive and organizational training of ejido groups. 2. The programs of concurrent funds established in the federal government should be more efficient.Administratively to avoid bureaucracy in the process of assigning projects and economic resources. 3. The results of agricultural research must be consistent with the technician’s assignment since currently the PSP is assigned untimely and considering that the productive processes are carried out throughout the year. 4. Considering that the new global environment demands to increase the access of producers to advances and technological changes, to the diffusion of innovation, to the new agrifood policies of investment in the sector, and to consider it as a basic principle to the development of capacities of the rural population. 5. The scientific research carried out in universities and experimental fields should be linked to the real problems of the field and focus on the solution of problems in the agricultural sector. 6. The processes of innovation of technology or cutting-edge technology are put into practice permanently within the sector and the beneficiary himself is the one who perceives the productive changes.