Title : Assessment of aphrodisiac activity of Bryonia laciniosa and its ameliorative potential against chemically induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats
Bryonia laciniosa is a climber herb distributed throughout India and commonly known as “Shivlingi”. The present study was conducted with the objectives to investigate the aphrodisiac and pro-fertility activity of ethanolic seed extract of Bryonia laciniosa as well as to examine its ameliorative potential against chemically induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Phase-I study: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups (I-IV) containing six rats each. Rats in group I received vehicle (10 ml/kg) and served as control. Group II – IV served as experimental group and received ethanolic seed extract of Bryonia laciniosa at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (orally) respectively for 45 consecutive days. At the end of the experimental period sexual behaviour parameters were evaluated in rats from all the groups. Rats were sacrificed to evaluate sperm related parameters and to study microanatomy of the reproductive organs. Results-: All doses of the extract stimulated male sexual behaviour. Rats treated with extract showed significant increase in mount, ejaculation, and intromission frequencies with significant prolongation of ejaculatory latency as compared to control (p < 0.05). Mount and intromission latencies were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Maximum effect was observed in dose 100 mg/kg. Evaluation of sperm related parameters revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total sperm count; percentage live sperm in addition to increased sperm membrane integrity in extract treated rats as compared to control. Highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose. Furthermore, no histopathological alterations were evident in testes, seminal vesicle and prostate of extract treated rats. Testes sections showed improved spermatogenic activity. Phase-II study: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups (A-D) containing six rats each. Rats in group A (control) received vehicle and group B rats received maximum effective dose of Bryonia laciniosa seeds extract as observed in phase-I study i.e 100 mg/kg. To induce reproductive toxicity and to examine ameliorative effect, rats in group C and D were given either Fipronil (10 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 100 mg/kg dose of the extract. All the agents were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. At end of the experimental period all the parameters as mentioned in phase-I study were evaluated. Result: Mating behaviour in rats treated with fipronil revealed a significant decrease in parameters like Mounting frequency(MF) and Intromission frequency(IF). Further, there was marked increase in mount latency (ML), Intromission latency, Ejaculation latency (EL) and Post ejaculatory interval as compared to control (p<0.05). However, when B. laciniosa extract (100 mg/kg) was administered to fipronil treated rats a significant increase/ decrease in the parameters which showed reduction /increase was observed. These parameters were comparable to control or even better than control values. A significant decrease/ reduction in total sperm count, motility, and number of live sperms with decreased acrosomal integrity were observed in fipronil treated rats as compared to control. However, when B. laciniosa extract was administered to fipronil treated rats sperm related parameters were restored to normal and even better than control values. Fipronil treatment of the rats caused several histopathological alterations in testes, epididymis and prostate. However, no such changes were observed in these organs after administration of B. laciniosa extract.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that ethanolic seed extract of Bryonia laciniosa exerted potential aphrodisiac and pro-fertility activities without signs of toxicity in reproductive organs. Fipronil treatment exerted deleterious effect on sexual behaviour and sperm related parameters indicating reproductive toxicity. Bryonia laciniosa extract exerted ameliorative effect against fipronil-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.