Title : Virus diseases of garlic in Indonesia and potential control measures
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most important vegetable commodities in Indonesia. Bulbs retained from previous planting season, which have a high risk of virus infection, are used by farmers as sources of seed. Infection by key viruses were detected in garlic bulbs. The incidence of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) was 100% on local garlic cultivars, ‘LumbuHijau’ and ‘Sembalun’; whereas incidence of SLV was slightly lower (up to 75%). Heat vapour treatment of bulbs and thermotherapy in tissue culture were evaluated for their efficiencyin virus elimination. Combinations of temperature (25, 40, 45, 50 ºC)and soaking time (5, 10,15 min) with heat vapour treatment were not been effective in suppressing GCLV or OYDV, but reduced SLV incidence in some extent.Thermotherapy at 33 oCin tissue culture was the best method to eliminate OYDV in garlic although the efficiency was not the same for all cultivars. The efficiency reached 60% for cv. Lumbu Hijau, but only 40% for cv. Sangga Sembalun. The effectiveness of tissue culture in producing virus-free garlic bulbs will be discussed in this presentation.