Title : The influence of climate conditions on the productivity of some gooseberry varieties in republic of moldova
Increasingly, climate change affects agricultural crops, flora, fauna, atmosphere, which in fact affects human existence. Climate change causes essential losses in harvest crops, which affects global food security. In order to avoid drastic consequences, scientific researches are needed to assess the agricultural crops adaptability to climate change, to study different species, varieties, to identify the most productive and resistant to the new conditions of climate changing. Fruit crops are rich in vitamins and nutrients necessary for the human body. The small fruits, among fruit-growing species, occupy an important place, due to the rapid entry on fructification, high productivity and berry phytotherapeutic quality. Sufficient atmospheric precipitation or irrigation is required for the success of shrub crops, otherwise fruits with much smaller dimensions are obtained than in favorable conditions and the quantity and quality of the crop is decreasing. Gooseberry, compared to other shrub species, is drought resistant. There are known over 5000 gooseberry varieties, created for certain climatic conditions, and their harvest is influenced differently by the cultivation conditions. The plasticity of the variety depends on its particularities, the degree of adaptation to the new cultivation conditions. Based on the study carried out under conditions without irrigation during the years 2002-2006 it was established that, the variation of the crop in most varieties of gooseberry was increasing, except for some, which were negatively influenced by the new cultivation conditions. The maximum fruit production for most gooseberry varieties was obtained in 2005, with the highest amounts of atmospheric precipitation accumulated annually (660 mm). However, during the vegetation period, on the fruits formation and growth phases, the temperatures recorded during this period were the highest and the amount of atmospheric precipitations amounted to only 230-350 mm, which is not sufficient to obtain larger, higher quality fruits and harvests for the varieties created for wetter conditions and which showed a less adaptability to new cultivation conditions. The variety Grushenca proved to be the most influenced by the new cultivation conditions, showing a poor adaptation degree. The obtained harvest under without irrigation conditions for the variety Grushenca is 1.6 t/ha. At the same time, these conditions proved to be favorable for the variety Severnai capitan, which produced a crop 9.8 times larger than the variety Gru?enca. In cultivation conditions with irrigation in 2010 maximum berry yields were obtained on the varieties Captivator, Severnai capitan. Obviously, the variety Gru?enca being the most influenced by the cultivation conditions, with irrigation, its adaptation degree increases, and the obtained yield reaches 7.4 t/ha. The most adaptable gooseberry varieties under irrigation conditions are Captivator, Severnai capitan, whose average harvest, in favorable conditions reach 15.7 and 18.6 t/ha respectively, which is 2.5-2.7 times higher than the one obtained from variety Grushenca.