Title : Detection and management of Citrus decline syndrome
Citrus is attacked by various pathogens viz. Fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and spiroplasma which are responsible for yield reduction in commercial citrus orchards. Citrus decline syndrome is the most severe problem at present due to which orchards are on the verge of extinction. It is not caused by a sole etiological agent rather it is a syndrome manifesting symptomatic expression of various biotic and abiotic disorders. In the current study, predisposing factors were assessed and determined in citrus growing areas of Punjab province of Pakistan. Different fungi were also isolated and identified from leaves, twigs, fruit, stem, roots and rhizosphere soil. Pathogenic mycoflora included F. semitectum, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Phytophthora nicotianae, Phoma tracheiphila, Geotrichum candidum and Lasodiplodia theobromae. The present work gleans an insight into eco-friendly management of citrus decline. The study reveals that young plantations compared to old ones with no intercropping followed by balanced national management and effective plant protection strategies in citrus groves contribute to curb decline in citrus orchards.