With its geographical situation (true crossroads between Europe and Africa and the Mediterranean and the Atlantic), with the diversity of its climate and its habitats, Morocco shelters a particularly varied natural vegetation, as well by its structure and its aspect, as by the diversity of the species. The floristic richness of the country is mainly related to the ecological heterogeneity of its biotopes. Indeed, of the desert to the high mountain and the littoral to the most continental borders, Morocco offers very varied ecological conditions which allowed the installation of species of various stocks.
The most important ecosystems of Moroccan are the forests and the matorrals which extend on approximately 5 million hectares. Then Stipa tenacissima ecosystem covers nearly 3 million hectares.
The vascular flora of Morocco has 5211 species and subspecies distributed among 155 families and 981 genera. The endemic flora represents 19%
The summary biogeographic analysis of the Moroccan flora shows that the latter is of indigenous stock, primarily Mediterranean, enriched by contributions by more or less of great importance, coming from north (elements holarctic), of the south (tropical or Saharan elements), of the east or the west.
On the phytosociological level, more than 600 associations and groups of plants have been inventoried and described in Morocco.
However, this diversity is subjected to many natural pressures (climate change, parasitic attacks…) and antropic pressures (clearing, overgrazing etc.).
In this study, we will evaluate the impact of the climate changes and human pressure on the degradation and the dysfunction of ecosystems as well as the rarefaction and the disappearance of species in Morocco and focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and to sustainably manage plants.
This presentation allows the audience to know (1) the important areas for plants in Morocco (hotspot) as a country with a highly significant flora in North Africa and the Mediterranean basin (2) the different pressures on plants in Morocco and (3) programs developed by Morocco to reverse trends.
Key words: Plants, diversity, sociology, trends, Morocco